완료형/본문의 동사보다앞선 그이전
having been +p.p
목적어 보어를 취하고, 부사(구)수식을 받음.
 동명사의 용법 :
R+ing ⇒ 명사(주어, 보어, 목적어)로 쓰일 때
/ [ ～하는 것 ]
⇒ 형용사적용법 : 명사수식
1) 주어 : Teaching is learning. / It is no use going there.
2) 보어 : Choosing time well is saving time. / His job is driving a car. / cf. He is driving a car.
3) 목적어 : Did you enjoy swimming here ? / I am fond of reading books.
☞ This watch needs mending.
= to be mended.
This room wants cleaning.
= to be cleaned.
 동명사만을 목적어로 취하는 동사
mega feps de ri mi a su pra.
mind,enjoy,give up, avoid, finish,escape,put off(=postpone), stop,deny,risk,miss,admit,suggest,practice.
consider,enjoy,imagine,suggest / 부정적 의미는 아님
☞ 동명사를 목적어로 취하는 형용사 : worth,near,like, busy,late
This book is worth reading.(=This book is worthy of reading) / (It is worth while to read this book)/ while은 worth의 목적어
 <～ing + 명사 > 에서
1) 동명사 : ～하기 위한, ～에 사용되는 + 명사
2) 현재분사 : ～하고 있는 + 명사
a waiting girl / a waiting room
a walking stick / a walking dictionary
a smoking room
 동명사, 부정사를 취했을 때 뜻이 달라지는 V
1) remember + to R : ～할 것을 (미래)
forget =that S will R
+ -ing : ～했던 것을 (과거)
= that S 과거V
I remember to see him tonight.
I forgot posting the letter.
2) try + to R : ～하려고 시도(노력)하다 I tried to write to her.
-ing : 시험삼아 ～해보다 / 실제로 ～해보다 / I tried writing to her.
3) stop + to R : ～하려고 멈추다
-ing : ～을 그만두다 (중단하다)
He stopped ( drink ) on the way home.
He stopped ( drink ) for his health.
4) S be sure to R : S는 틀림없이 -할 것이다
= I am sure that S will R
= It is certain that S will R
S be sure of -ing : S는 -할 것을 확신하다.
= S be sure that S will R
He is sure to succeed.
He is sure of succeeding.
☞ 동명사의 의미상의 주어
인칭대명사 : 소유격이 원칙이나,구어체에서는 목적격도 자주쓰임.
사람,생물 : 소유격.목적격(소유격이우선)
무생물명사(사물) , 지시명사 : 명사를 그대로사용./ 목적격이 원칙
doesn't like my smoking too much / 시험영어 (toeic,toefl)
She doesn't like me smoking too much / 구어체
 to + (동)명사
1. object to : ～에 반대하다
= be opposed to / = have an objection to
I object to your meeting her.
2. contribute to : ～에 공헌(기여)하다 He contributed to getting rid of poverty.
3. with a view to : ～할 목적으로 / = with the view of = for the purpose of
He went to London with a view to studying
4. devote ⓐ to ⓑ : ⓑ에 ⓐ를 바치다 He devoted all his time to looking after the boy.
5. look forward to : ～을 기대(고대)하다 I'm looking forward to seeing you again.
6. fall to : 시작하다 They fell to discussing the matter.
7. ～에 익숙해 있다 : be(get) used to ~ ing / be accustomed to ~ ing / I am used to getting up early.
cf. 物 be used to + R : ～에 사용된다
subject to ~ing : ~ 하기쉽다.
be opposed to ~ ing : ~ 에 대립하다.
it comes to ~ ing : ~라는 관점에서는
 동명사의 관용적 용법
1. It is no use (no good) -ing :～해봐야 소용없다
= It is of no use toR
= It is useless toR
= There is no use (in) -ing
= What's the use of -ing ?
It is no use crying over spilt milk.
2. There is no -ing : ～할 수 없다
～하는 것은 불가능하다
= It is impossible to R
= We can't R
= No one can R
There is no knowing what may happen.
3. It goes without saying that S + V :
～은 말 할 필요도 없다
= It is needless to say that S + V
= Needless to say, S + V
It goes without saying that knowledge is power.
4. On (Upon) -ing, = When S + V
= As soon as S + V
On seeing me, he ran away.
= As soon as he saw me, he ran away.
= He had hardly seen me when he ran away.
no sooner than
= Hardly had he seen me when he ran away.
No sooner than
5. feel like -ing : ～하고 싶다
= feel inclined to R
be disposed to R
I don't feel like going out.
6. make a point of -ing : ～하는 것을 규칙으로 하다
= make it a rule to R
7. S + be worth -ing : ～할 가치가 있다
= S + be worthy of -ing
= It is worth while -ing + S.
= It is worth while to R + S.
This book is worth reading.
8. be on the point (edge, verge) of -ing :
막 ～하려는 참이다
= be about to R
I am on the point of starting now.
9. come (go) near -ing : 하마터면 ～할 뻔하다
= narrowly escape -ing
I came near being drowned.
10. of one's own -ing : ～자신이 직접 ～한
= 목적격관.대 + S + oneself +한시제앞선 V
= p.p. + by oneself
He sent me a card of his own painting.
11. far from -ing : 결코 -하지 않다
He is far from telling a lie.
12. for the -ing : -하기만 하면
=if only S + V
You may have the book for the asking.
13. What do you say to -ing ? : -하는 것이 어떻습니까 ?
= What do you think about -ing ?
What (How) about -ing ?
How about -ing ?
Let's - , shall we ?
14. can not R ⓐ but S + V ⓑ
= without -ing
: ⓐ할 때마다 ⓑ한다
ⓐ하면 반드시 ⓑ한다
He can't speak English without making mistakes.
It never rains without pouring.
= It never rains but it pours.
= Whenever it rains, it pours.
= When it rains, it always pours.
15. Instead of -ing : -하지 않고
Instead of waiting for me, he went away.
16. Besides -ing : -이 외에도
In addition to
Besides teaching English, he writes poems.
17. S have difficulty (in) -ing :
= It is difficult for 目 to R
It was not difficult for me to persuade him.
=I had no difficulty (in) persuading him.
18. S + prevent + O + from -ing.
(keep, stop, hinder, prohibit)
직역 : S는 O가 -하지 못하게 하다
-하는 것을 막다.
의역 : S 때문에 O는 -할 수 없다
The rain prevented me from going there.
만드는 동명사는 용도. 목적을 나타낸다.